Vascular Disorders

Brain                   AVM’s            Aneurysms Strokes


Arteriovenous Malformation Center at MGH/Harvard

AVM’s by John R. Mangiardi, M.D. at


Scan of a large aneurysm |
Brain scan of an aneurysm with blood vessel entering |

An Aneurysm can best be likened unto a “Balloon” on a bicycle tire. The above picture represents an arteriogram of the Vertebral Artery in the brain. An arteriogram (or Angiogram if smaller vessels are being studied.) is made by injecting specific vessels with a “dye” which shows up in a series of X-rays. In the MRI picture below, the same aneurysm was first discovered.

Learn more about aneurysms at the links below:


There are two basic types of strokes: “Wet” or hemorrhagic and “Dry” or non-hemorrhagic strokes. They are subcategorized as follows:

  1. Hemorrhagic(“a bleed”)
    1. Hypertensive ( This is one of the most avoidable tragedies of High Blood Pressure!)
    2. Spontaneous (Other causes such as aneurysm, AVM’s, amyloidal, bleeding from tumors, infections, trauma…)
  2. Non-Hemorrhagic(Results in dead areas of the brain from lack of oxygen.)
    1. Embolic
      1. Cardiac (from fibrillations, old myocardial infarcts, endocarditis…)
      2. Carotid Artery ( pieces of plaque of clots breaking off)
    2. Thrombosis (this usually occurs from clotting off from arteriosclerosis or “hardening of the arteries”)

“Brain Attack”by John R. Mangiardi, M.D

MGH Harvard Vascular Home Page